Introduction of Solid Foods to Infants
By Richard LaVer Bentley
Brother VerDon W Ballantyne
English 316 section 6
Brigham young University
By Richard LBentley
April 28, 1978
993 E. third SouthProvo, UT 84601 April 28, 1978
Brother VerDon W. Ballantyne
English 316 section 6
Brigham young University
Provo, Utah 84602
In particular fulfillment of the requirements of English 316, I have researched the subject of solid foods. Infants. The accompanying paper, entitled, introduction of solid foods to infants, report some of the major findings of the study.
The purpose of the report for work is to determine the best time to begin feeding solid foods to young infants. The topic has been restricted to a study of the needs of normal infants who were not premature at birth. The present-day methods and purposes of feeding solids to infants are discussed.
Following this discussion, major section of this report reviews several factors related to the advantages and disadvantages of solids at various ages. The summary and conclusion makes the tentative decision about the age at which to introduce solids. The report cannot cover every aspect of the subject, but merely discussed the major ones in rather general terms.
I appreciate the opportunity to plead this report and thank you for your advice and assistance. I also wish to acknowledge the patient hours of typing volunteered by my helpful life, intimately, and my sister in law, Peggy Williams. In addition, I acknowledge the typing of the final draft by Marty Calder. Also helpful were the comments by all three women about the child feeding.
I hope this report will be satisfactory in meeting the requirements.
Table of contents
I. Introduction 1
I I. The early introduction of solids 4
Infant feeding trends 4
mothers’ reason for early silence 5
physicians’ reasons for early solids
I I I. Considerations of several factors 8
advantages and disadvantages of early solids 8
mothers’ pride 8
number of feedings nine
sleeping through the night nine
convenience service 10
development readiness 12
nutritional needs and dangers 15
advantages of delayed solid foods 19
digestive system readiness 19
allergy prevention 20
ability to fight infection 21
IV. Summary and conclusion 25
There are a number of reasons why solids foods should not be fed to infants before five or six months of age. Many modern mothers and even doctors, apparently feeding a need to progress as rapidly as possible, start feeding solids before three months. Convenience, though sometimes a benefit of such a practice, is not as important as the child’s health. A review of several factors related to food reveals that infants do better without solids for while. Solids are not nutritionally needed until five or six months. By the time, that digestive system is better able to handle complete solids, and allergic reactions to food are less probable. Solids should be postponed five or six months to avoid upsetting the delicate balance in infants intestines, especially if the protection afforded by breast-feeding against infection is desired.
Dry cereal, cows milk
solids that are pureed or strained for baby food
Introduction of solid foods to infants
The best time to introduce quote solid foods” to young infants depends upon the effects produced by the solids at different stages of development. This report reviews some of these effects and recommends an appropriate age for infant to begin their eating of “solids”.
As used in the report, the terms “solid food” refers to all infants nurse friends other than milk, water, or infant formulas.1 the term “solids” is used because these foods were originally in a non– liquid state. These foods were strange, puréed, or mixed with water or milk to be consistently appropriate for the child’s age. This consults occurred dry cereal mixed with milk, fruit juices,. Fruits officials, strained meats and egg yolks, and fruit and tapioca desserts.2
these foods seen hummus nothing in there in proper feeding can lead to serious health problems. Abstracts of the 1974 study on weaning and some planetary food in India implies that these children are fed the wrong foods, their nutrition suffers. The study reports that knowledge nutritionally balanced foods improves the babies health.3
1Guthrie, and effective early feeding solid foods on picture intakes of infants but he page880
2 Brown, when they start solids page 32 – 35
3 studies on weaning and supplementary foods, nutrition abstracts and reviews page 1126.
Nutrition can be very serious matter. The night kingdom Department of Health and Social Security refers to studies claimed that malnutrition in the first six months of life is very attractive in terms of the development of the brain. Determine therefore concludes that wheat cereal should not be fed to expense before the age of 4 to 6 months.4
it is interesting that the abstract just cited would recommend the points of the solid food in an effort to prevent malnutrition.
The newborn infant begins life with a relativity fragile body unaccustomed has yet to air, hunger, germs, or food. A lack of knowledge of either the infants needs for the dangers it faces is an unnecessary detriment to good health. It is therefore the goal of this report to evaluate the findings of a number of physicians, nurses, and scientists who have studied the problems of infant feeding in relation to the effects of solid food.
The information presented in this report was researched from scientific, machine, and medical journals as well as from some popular health protocols and nutrition books. An effort was made to analyze the reliability of the source.
this report is written for young parents in attempt to meet their needs to know the factors involved in feeding solids to their own infants. It is hope that they will adapt to this report to their own special circumstances and use it wisely and determine the best time to introduce solids. The material is presented in general terms rather than in great detail. Specific infants present many exceptions to the general facts presented here in. For example, the problems of birth complications defects, and retardation cannot be treated in the scope of this report. You either will the efforts of incubation or in intravenous feeding the considered. The report is restricted to relevant to the normally scared for the rather natural mother’s home. Only full-term infants of normal birth weight are considered.
The report is organi zed into three major sections: (1)a presentation of some of the major reasons for this current trends to introduce solids early, (2) analysis of the effects of solids, includes a discussion of the previously cited reason for early solids as well as a presentation of other factors, and (3) as is a summary and report of the conclusions. Each factor is briefly explained and analyzed regarding the feeding of solids to infants.
4 present – Dave practice and infant feeding, patrician abstracts and reviews. Page 473
II. The early introduction of solids
This section examines the trends in infant feeding solids and presents some of the common reasons for these trends. The traditional method of feeding our contrasted with the present practices. The reason’s given by mothers and doctors for the present methods involved in such external factors as pride, convenience, and apparent readiness, as well as nutritional need.
Infant feeding trends
The method of feeding infants have changed quite dramatically in the last 80 years. In the first part of the century, solids were withheld from infants until they were almost 1 years old. 5 later, bottle feeding was begun from mothers who could not breast-feed their babies. As more mothers begin bottle instead soda breast-feeding,” many infants became anemic”. To prevent this anemia, doctors began introducing solids to infants at that age of 4 to 5 months. 6 the trend to introduce solids at increasingly early ages has continued to the present. The 1965 study in a college town in Pennsylvania showed that all the samples of the 50 bottles – Fred infants were received solids with very liquids by nine weeks of age. 7 by 1975, some doctors in the United States are recommending the starting of solids at the age of 3 to 6 weeks, 8 almost infants were beginning solids at about 2 to 3 months of age. 9 in 1977, registered nurses, Jill Slattery, reported that the current trend was to begin feeding solids to one month old babies. 10 the average age of the first feeding of solids to infants was decreased from almost one year to nearly one month of age. What are the causes of this trend?
5 Guthrie page 879
6 adelle Davis, let’s have healthy children page 210
7 Guthrie page 879
8 Laupus, “feeding of infants,” Nelson textbook of pediatrics 10th edition
Ed. By V.C Vaughan. III and R.J. Mckay, page 177.
Mothers’ reasons for early solids
Others have various reasons for starting solids at these popular ages.(1) some fill the they are “good mothers” if they can start their babies on solids before their neighbors. Because of this place of parents and friends, others often experience “social pressures that make them feel they should”star solids as early as possible, as Dr. Samuel J fomom points out. 11
Guthrie found that many mothers in the college town felt proud of their bottle-fed babies took solid foods early. 12  some parents want to introduce solids to help their baby last longer between feedings.13  individual mothers reason their babies will sleep through the night if it solids in the evening. 14  some mothers feel that the feeding of solids is more lenient than bottle feeding and they may well be correct in that assumption.
9 Brown page 32
10 Slattery, nutrition for the normal healthy infant page 110
11 Sandman, does your baby really need solid foods, page 17
12 Guthrie page 883
13 Brown page 32
14Guthrie page 879
 some fill it solids should be fed when the baby seems really ready for solids and desires them. 15 six number six some are afraid their babies will become malnourished without solids. 16
Physicians ‘ reasons for early solids
evidently, many physicians agree with the above statement reason for the early introduction of solids. Some doctors recommend early solids to enable the mother to resume her regular lifestyle as soon as possible. To quickly eliminate the need for expense of specialty foods, at least one Dr. allocates fruit juices at three weeks and my serious for weeks. This is Dr. F. M. Smith who, by this method has the two month old infant eat pureed family meals three times a day. The only possible side effect he mentioned are constipation and diarrhea. 17 however, the best reason given by Dr. Shirley solids is the need for better nutrition. For example, the 1958 American Academy of pediatric committee on nutrition, compose and eight medical doctor, recommend is that solids containing iron be given to infants and their third month of life. 18
Thus doctors and mothers have a number of apparently good reasons for the early introduction of solids, including, convenience, nutrition, and acceptance of family foods.
15 personal survey interview with the life.
16 Adelle Davis page 177
17 F. M. Smith, blend infants diet with the family diet page 112
18 American Academy of pediatrics, committees on nutrition, on the feeding of solid foods to infants page 691
Next section of this report reviews the findings scientists, nurses, and doctors to determine the vaidity of some of these reasons for solids. Also introduced in the next section are few factors that are usually ignored.
III. consideration of several factors
Important to the wise decision about when to introduce solids to infants this and a complete understanding of some of the important aspects of the human infant’s life. For example if it is likely that a decision based upon convenience alone would be less wise than a decision based upon both convenience and nutrition. The present section attempts to isolate and analyze some of the various aspects of infants feeding problem. Tab
This decision includes factors that influence the baby’s mother and father as well as the event himself. Both external and internal factors involved the intent. Jill factors are those that seem to show readiness for solids. Internal factors refer to those that are inside the baby’s body and or., Therefore, unknown or misunderstood by the infant’s mother. Central factors are the infants need of food nutrition, digestion of food, and proper use of foods allergies, and infections related to food. The later three are considered in the separate section since they show the need of postponement of solids.
Advantages and disadvantages of early solids
The present section deals with the real reasons given by mothers and Dr. Shirley introduction of solids. First factor considers involve the people that care for the baby and her mother’s pride, the number of feedings, sleep into the night, inconvenience, including costs and goals of infants feeding.
Mother’s pride, the pride the mother Phyllis seems to be directly related to herself image. Many mothers seem to believe that the faster an infant grows up, better his valorous. They tend to want their children to be the first baby neighborhood to walk, eat, or talk. However, it is questionable whether high speed of development is actually the most desirable situation. To suggest here that quality of health is more important than speed. Thus there seems to be more truth in the belief that health of the child, the mother. Considerations of the health of the infant are discussed in the report following an examination of the few consequences.
Number of feedings. H. A. Guthrie know the number of times 50 bottles fed infants were fed daily. Interestingly, the age of three weeks. 33% of the babies had sought 87 or more times a day., While only 30% of the babies fed liquids only as often. The change study, the percent of liquids – only babies that were frequent eaters was small than the percentage of the babies fed solids that were frequent eaters. 19 the study indicates solids do not reduce the number of daily infant feeding. The time between feedings increased currently has age increases, but not as the feeding of solids increases in the first three months.
Sleeping through the night. The belief solids helped him to sleep overnight also appears to be unfounded. As, that infants can sleep all night long fair fed cereal in the evening during the first month of life. However, there is no evidence to support this idea, according to the 1974 group of nutritionists and a medical doctor. 20 it is concluded that the available evidence does not show solids affect infants sleeping habits.
Country page 884
20 M. C. Indonesia, EWERS, and y.ISHIDa, introducing solid foods to infants, page 81
Conveniences. One benefit of early solids this the mother’s convenience. Open jar of baby food and spoon feed the infant does seem easier than mixing up a bottle of formula, that is if the baby baby is ready and the mother is successful in getting the baby to like and accept solids. Sometimes the latter is not so easy. Plenty of times, patient, and effort are required to start an infant in solids. 21 the preparation for the increased clarity of food needs to keep the diet balanced is quite time-consuming. 22, 23 the solid feeding session can become very tense and tiring especially at the end is not ready or willing. 24 of course, after the child is ready, solid feeding becomes very convenient once it has become well established. Until then, the continuation of liquids feeding alone would seem most convenient.
But another factor to be considered is breast-feeding. Once breast-feeding has become well-established, provide the baby can suckle well, and the mother has an adequate milk supply, it is much more convenient to continue liquid feeding that you start solid feeding. The breast-feeding mother does not have to pack of bottles and jars of baby food where she takes the baby out with her. Joey’s has a ready supply of food for the infant when it is needed. The ease of the transition to
21 I did.
22 GUTHRie, page 884 – 885.
23 bakwIN, feeding program for infants, page 67.
24 Brown page 32
Solid foods can be greatly enhanced if it is postponed to the later age when infants is ready and desires a variety of foods.
Moreover, I mother who desires to breast feed her infant longer than six months should reconsider the effect early introduction of solids has upon milk production. Marvin S eiger, a pediatrician, and s. F. Olds writes that the solids tend to field infant’s stomach, causing him to suck less vigorously at his mother’s breast. This decreased sucking does not estimate abreast enough to keep milk production high. 25 adelle Davis, a master of biochemistry and a former consulting nutritionist, warns that solids begun at 2 to 3 months of age can cause the breast milk to dry up by the age of six months. 26 the introduction of solids should thus be postponed until after 3 to 4 months, it seems, if the mother wishes to continue the conveniences of breast-feeding beyond six months.
The cost of solid food should also be considered. H. Bakwin of the New York University school of medicine, Department of pediatrics, asserts that solids for infants a few days old are unnecessary expensive, 27 and Jill Slattery, M. S. N., Says that the cost of solids before six months of age is high. 28 the cost of solids become quite inconvenient when it is compared to the cost of inexpensive mother’s milk.
25 eiger and OLdS, the complete book of breast-feeding, page 180
26 Adelle Davis, let’s have healthy children page 210
27 bakwin page 67
28 Slattery page 110
Solid feeding becomes convenient only after it is well-established and especially after the infant begins eating the family’s food. Depending upon the mother’s goal of breast-feeding, however, the disadvantages are as important to consider as are the advantages. Mothers of extreme patients with children that have food on their close and on the floor may try to introduce solids early. But mothers who desire to breast-feed their babies would be better to delay solids at least 3 1/2 to 4 months.
The factors discussed so far mainly concern the infant’s mother. The following factors involve infants himself. The next section discusses the external development and readiness of the infants mouth and nerves for solids.
Developmental readiness. This section deals with four topics: the mouse, choking, speech, and psychological results.
H. A. Guthrie found that mothers have worries about their bottle – fed babies that were between the ages of three weeks and three months. They worry about rejections of particular foods and about the necessities to poke vegetables into their babies’ mouth S. Some of the mothers got there infants to eat cereal by diluting it with so much formula that it flowed by gravity like formula to the back of the babies mouths without the use of the tongue. 29. Ishida, V Ewera, and Ishida relate that a study of 65 infants showed that the younger the infant, the more he rejected his first exposure to solids. 30 experiences such as these point to the idea that the infant needs to be ready for solids.
29 Guthrie page 883.
Young infants have a ton reflux which pushes vigorously against a spoon held in their mouth, 31 and forces any solid foods out. 32 this reflex may be important in helping to prevent choking. Therefore, it seems unwise to interview solids at at time of the baby involuntarily rejects them. The nurse connections and fibers and muscles of the mouth need to mature in order for the infants to accept an small solids. Between three and four months the nerve becomes mature and the mouth seems ready. 33 in the third or fourth month the production of saliva begins, indicated by drooling; T start forming around six months of age and chewing movements come later. 34 based upon these facts and on 1957 report in pediatrics, volume 20 by v.A. Beal, the 1953 American Academy of pediatrics, committee on nutrition concluded that infants were meant to have a liquid diet for the first few months of life. 35 it appears, therefore, that the infant’s mouth is not ready for solids until about three or four months of age. Since infants differ, some may not be ready until five months. 36 nothing
30 M. C. Ishida, Ewers, and Y Ishida, page 79
31 BakWIn, page 67
32 M. C. Ishida, Ewers, and Y Ishida, page 79
33 I bid.
34 American Academy of pediatrics, committee on nutrition, on the feeding of solid foods,. Page 690
35 I bid.
36 Schrum, Baby care and Family Love, Page 100-101.
Indicates that the tongue reflex should be suppressed and it seems best to give solids only after the reflects naturally disappears.
There is a danger of the infant choking on raw vegetables and nuts since they are not dissolved by saliva in young infants. 37 common sense and wisdom must be used to avoid giving even finely divided foods that might cost choking before the infant’s saliva is able to dissolve them, especially for the fourth month.
The muscles of the face are necessary for speech need the exercise of active sucking or chewing for development. Adelle Davis warns that early introduction of solids reduces the infants sucking and, since the solids are soft, reduces the need for tuning. Therefore, the muscles necessary for speech are undeveloped. She implies that this is this reason for the great increasing numbers of children that need speech therapy. 38 it is therefore important that solids do not decrease the sucking exercise that is important for later speech.
There also psychological problems that are related to solid feeding. H. A. Guthrie warns that mothers getting frustrated when they try to feed solids to babies who are not ready. This frustration can lead to”psychic trauma”and both mother and child may associate unhappy feelings with feeding times. 39 Mary D. And James S Turner, referring to the book, the rights of infants by M. A. RIBBLE, imply that inappropriate and abrupt
37 Slattery page 111
38 Adelle Davis page 209
39 Guthrie page 879
Weaning experience can predispose the infant to anxiety and nervousness. 40 there is a ferry that during the time of a normal tongue reflex, the nerves of the mouth must not be forced to accept solids from spoons. You H. A. I Guthrie takes this very from a 1961 article by P. GYORGY in Federation proceedings of the Federation of American societies for experimental biology. She warns that prolonged spoon feeding that suppresses the normal reflects of the time causes”mental insult” which might lead to later”neurotic reactions”in a child. 41 though this is only a theory, it seems important enough to consider if NEUROsIS is to be prevented. To avoid any possible psychological problems, solids should not be forced upon an infant.
In consideration of the previous material on developmental readiness, it appears important solids be postponed three or four months and tell normal tongue reflex disappears. However, if solids significantly decrease the infant’s sucking, they may have to be postponed longer.
Nutritional needs and dangers. The most important reason given by doctors for the introduction of solids is the need for additional nutrition. In this section, a number of questions are discussed: (1) how long can liquid supply all the nutrients to infant needs? (2) how long do breasts – fed infants receive adequate nutrition?(3) what are the nutritional problems of solids?
40 M. D. Turner and J. S. Turner, making your own baby food page 58
41Guthrie page 879
The first question concerning the length of time that liquids can supply all the nutrients needed. One of the oft– cited needs of solids is the need for iron. However, it has been stated that if a pregnant mother eats the correct nutrients, her unborn baby will store up I am reserves in its body during the last couple of weeks of pregnancy. ISHIDa, EWERS, and ISHIDa claim that the iron reserves will last generally five or six months after birth if the infant is of normal weight and is not premature. 40 P.m. Sandman reports that Dr. Samuel J. P. Fomon, a professor of pediatrics at University of Iowa, claims that the infant has no need of solids until nine months of age, if he drinks a normal amount of iron fortified formula with added vitamin C and vitamin D drops. 43 apparently milk or fortified form that can provide enough of the nutrients needed during the first six months of the baby’s life. 44, 45
But what about breast – fed infants; how long are their needs met? Human breast milk is known to be the food best suited for an infant’s nutritional needs. 46 according to S. J. Fomon, I well nourished mother can provide in her breast milk enough thiamine, riboflabin, total niacin,
42 M. c. Ishida, Ewers, and Ishida, page 81
43 Sandman page 17
44 Slattery page 110
45 Brown page 32
46 American Academy of pediatrics, committee on nutrition,” commentary on breast-feeding and infant formulas, including proposed standards for formulas”page 278
and vitamins A, C, and E, for her infant’s needs. $.47 human milk contains iron, breast – fed infants rarely develop iron deficiency. 48 human breast milk is, therefore, apparently adequate for the first 4 to 6 months of life, 46 especially if I’m in D is given in supplementary vitamin drops. 50 it seems that breast milk can supply all the infant’s needs for at least six months, making solids unnecessary.
Solids may pose some nutritional problems in the early months of life. A decrease in milk intake because of solid feeding might result in inadequate nutrition even know the baby eats enough calories in the first weeks of life. 51 in addition, the iron added to infant cereals is in the form which it cannot be used by the infant’s digestive system. This is the conclusion Jill Slattery made, based upon the 1975 works of Rios, Ernesto, and others reported in pediatrics, volume 55. 52 if the usable form of iron were added to cereals it would discolor them. However it does not discolor formulas thus, the form added to iron – fortified formulas can be absorbed by the baby’s body. Such formulas are recommended for the prevention of anemia. 53
47 Slattery page 108
48 American Academy for pediatrics, committee on nutrition,” commentary on breast – feeding.” Page 284.
48 Wade,” can you afford to bottle feed your baby?” Page 26 – 27.
50 Slattery page 108.
51 American Academy of pediatrics, “on the feeding of solid foods.” Page 689
52 Slattery page 109
53 M. c. Ishida, Ewers, and Ishida, page 81
Adelle Davis warns that early solids my crowd out milk and lead to calcium deficiency. She implies that without enough calcium, the child’s facial bones cannot develop correctly but become deformed, possibly making the child only by the age of six months. 54
there are other potential dangers of early solids that cannot be discussed in this report but are briefly mentioned. Solids tend to decrease milk intake while increasing intake of calories in foods that need to be dissolved in water. Resulting water inbalance, excess salt in the blood, the excess body fat can occur.
It appears that all needed nutrients can be provided without solids up until about six months, especially if vitamins drops are used. Many potential problems exist with solids given any earlier. This report therefore, recommends that solids be postponed until the infant is about six months old. Up until the age, liquid seem to be the best for the infant. Even after six months of age, liquids are a very important part of the diet. Perhaps this importance is best summarized by the following quotation from the 1976 American Academy for pediatrics, committee on nutrition:
The committee reaffirms the recommendation for encouraging breast – feeding…. When breast – feeding is unsuccessful, inappropriate, or stopped early, infant formulas provide the best alternative for meeting nutritional needs during the first year. 55
54 Adelle Davis page 209
55 American Academy for pediatrics,” commentary on breast – feeding” page 279
advantages of delayed solid foods
it seems that most of the reasons given for early solids is not sufficiently justify the practice of introducing solids before the age of six months. There are three factors involved with solids that were not mentioned in the reasons for solids there are basically concerned with what goes on inside infant and seem to point to the need for postponing solids. They are digestion, allergy prevention, and infection.
Digestive system readiness. Solids would seem of little use if they could not be digested and their nutrients absorbed correctly to the walls of the intestines into the infant’s bloodstream. Though finely divided solid seems to be digested well after the first few weeks of life. 56 Absorption of complete proteins is still not adequate at the age of one month. 57 digestion of solids is complete if there are enough enzymes in the fluid of the intestines. Formed in special cells in the body, enzymes are proteins like substances which start or speed up digestion or control other chemical reactions, according to the Webster’s New World dictionary. Amylase is one such enzyme which is produced in the pancreas.Amylase breaks down carbohydrates such as starch. Until the infant is four or five months old, the amount of Amylase present in the small intestine signs is too small to sufficiently complete carbohydrate digestion. 58 it seems certain that the digestive system is not ready at
56 American Academy of pediatrics,” on the feeding of solid foods…” Page 690
57 Schrum page 101
58 M. c. Ishida, Ewers, and Ishida, page 79
the age of one month, but this it is generally able to digest and absorb solids by the age of five months.
Allergy prevention. Related to the subject of digestion is the prevention of allergies. How disease are caused when the digestive enzymes are not complete enough to break down large molecules of protein. $.59 then test lines of a baby is immature, its walls are porous and allow these large proteins, as well as fat particles from the solid food, to be absorbed into the blood stream. 60 once inside, these particles tend to cause allergies. 61
Immunoglobulins are special proteins that act like antibodies and attack and neutralize foreign bodies and poisons enter the body. 62 a specific type of Immunoglobulin is type a, which is abbreviated as IGA. One of this antibody’s functions is to neutralize large proteins before they are absorbed into the bloodstream so that they do not cause allergies. However, according to S. J.Fomon, and infant does not have enough IGA antibodies to prevent allergies and tell he is six or seven months old. 63 it seems, therefore that the introduction of any solids or foods that could produce allergies should wait until the infant is at least six
59 Leslie,” nutrition and diet. Part two: care of an infant,” page 31
60 keen,” the milk of human kindness,” page 65
61 Adelle Davis page 275
62 Immunoglobulin,”Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary.”
63 Slattery page 110
months old. This is to allow plenty of time for the IGA to rise to an adequate level and is especially important if there is a family history of allergy or asthma.
Ability to fight infection. The infants ability to fight infection is also very important to consider and seems to be related to the infant’s diet. J. W. Gerrard, M.D.from the department of pediatrics, University of Saskatchewan hospital, points out that there is a period of time in the newborns infants life in which he is especially vulnerable to some kinds of bacteria. Drain this conclusion from the works of J. Taylor in 1970 and E. Neter, o Westphal, and others in 1955, he implies that this period of time lasts about eight or nine months from birth. A type of bacteria that is common in the human intestine and is called Escherichia Coli and is abbreviated, E. coli. There are certain strains of this E. coli bacteria which can cause disease in your infants. However, after one year of life, the average child is immune to these germs. 64 according to the 1973 reports by J. M. Rutter and G. Jones, E. coli bacteria caused dehydration and serious diarrhea when they adhere to the intestine walls and release poisons. This adhering of the E. coli bacteria to the intestines is prevented by that I G a antibody. 65
Apparently the newborn infant cannot produce this own antibodies including IGA, and therefore, he has little protection against E. coli. He is honorable until he has produced his own defense by the age of nine
64 Gerrard,” breast-fed feeding: second thoughts,” page 761
65 I bid.
to 12 months. This transition to the immune state is difficult for artificial fed babies and can lead to illness and arrays in death rates, according to J. W. Gerrard. 66
However, when the infant is breast-fed from birth, he gets many antibodies from the colostrum and the breast milk. Colostrum is the watery liquor that is excreted by the breast before regular milk comes in. According to 1961 report by S. Sussman pediatrics and 1972 report by J. J. Gindrat and others in aCTA pediatrics Scandinavia, breastmilk gives a continued supply of antibodies against E. coli bacteria. 67 after a great deal of research, J. W. Gerrard concluded that, since breast milk provides better protection against disease of the intestines that do antibodies, breast-feeding allows the baby to build up his own defense against infection smoothly and gradually. 68 apparently is long period of breast-feeding helps prevent many infections while infant is most susceptible to infections.
Breast-feeding also produces an environment within the large intestine lines that is harmful to such disease causing bacteria as shigellae, salmonelae, and E. coli, according to C.A.C. Ross, E.A. Dawes, and others. 69 breastmilk has large quantities of milk sugar known as lactose which is fermented inside the large intestines into acid. This acid tends to
66 I bid page 762
67 Gerrard,” breast-feeding: second thoughts,” page 757
68 I bid page 761 – 763
69 I bid page 761
Page page 23
prevent the growth of infectious bacteria. 70 however, the introduction of other foods or cow’s milk neutralizes acid and allows E. coli bacteria to thrive. Because of this fact, breastmilk only protects the large intestines when it is given alone. 71 thus breast-feeding infants should not be given solids until they become immune to E. coli and other bacteria, if full immunological protection is did the desired.
In the supplement to the 1973 aCTA pediatrics Scandinavia, J.W.Gerrard, J.W.A. MacKenzie, and others concluded that, even with good methods of hygiene, the early introduction of cow’s milk and all kinds of other foods has led to such problems as reoccurrent diarrhea,rhinorrhea, eczema, bronchophemmonia, and bronchiolitis. 72 in light of this, J.W.Gerrard makes the following recommendations for the feeding of infants during the first six months.:
The evidence indicates beyond all question and tell the eighth month, breasts – fed babies have fewer gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections and a greater chance of survival then have artificial fed babies. The suggestion that the baby should be maintained on these breast and on the breast alone for six months. This will ensure maximum protection and a minimum of exposure to foreign food allergens during the period in which his passively acquired transplacental protection is being replaced by his own antibody production. 73
70 Bullen and Willis,” resistance of the breast – fed infant to Gastroenteritis,” page 342
71 Gerrard,” breast-feeding: second thoughts,” page 761
72 I bid page 762
73 I bid page 762
Infants seem to be very vulnerable to infection bacteria during that period of time between birth and nine months. The best way to avoid extreme infection appears to be the breast-fed of the incident throughout it this period. Since other foods interfere with the protection afforded by the acid in the large intestines, breast-fed mothers would do well to avoid solids or cow’s milk for at least six months.
This conclusion puts the appropriate age for the introduction of solids later than the age indicated by the readiness of the digestive system to handle those solids. However, the age of six months is in agreement with the recommended age for avoidance of allergies for infants with allergenic family histories.
IV. Summary and conclusion
Throughout this century, there has been a general trend turn reduce solids to infants having recently earlier age because of many mothers’ concern for convenience and nutrition. This report discusses a few aspects of the mothers’and infants’lives and draws conclusions about solid foods. The mother’s pride is real but should be directed towards the health rather than towards infant’s swiftness of growth. Solid foods do not reduce the number of infants feedings daily. Solids before bedtime do not generally help the baby sleep through the night sooner. Though these are some conveniences of early solids for mothers whose bottle-fed their babies, these are outweighed by the inconveniences solids cause for the breast-feeding mother. After the tongue reflex disappears and infant shows an interest in other foods, solids may be introduced as long as this does not generally reduced infant’s sucking. Up until about six months of age, all nutritional needs can be met without solid foods. Solids fed too early could possibly lead to calcium or other nutrients deficiencies or problems of bone development. It seems that the infant has the best chance of getting iron in an usable form from fortified formulas and that a liquid diet is the surest way to prevent accidentally unbalanced feeding during the first six months of life. In fact that the digestive system seems generally ready by four or five months of age does not necessarily imply a need for solids at this time. To increase the margin of safety in the prevention of allergies, solids should be postponed as long as possible or at least until six months of age, especially if there is a family history of allergies. Exclusively breast-feeding the baby for at least six months without any other foods is also one way of increase the baby’s ability to fight some common infections.
Based upon the above findings, it is recommended that both bottle and breast-fed infants be started on solid foods around age of six months if they are of normal birth weight and are healthy. There may be individual differences in next year nutrients that should be supplemented in vitamin drops, and bottle-fed babies may need the vitamin from fruit juices a little sooner than six months. Nevertheless, there is more evidence supporting the feeding of solids at six months then at any earlier age. The conclusion of this report is, therefore, that the age of six months is the best time to introduce solid foods to young infants.
Appendix coming soon